VDE-AR-N 4142 describes measures ensuring the effectiveness of automatic low frequency demand disconnection, even with an increasing number of decentralised power-generating modules in distribution networks. These include low frequency tripping dependent on the direction of active power and the appropriate determination of the loads per disconnection stage. The Rule also lays down requirements for frequency relays.
Automatic final measures to prevent system breakdowns - VDE-AR-N 4142
Commission Regulation 2017/2196 (Network Code on Emergency and Restoration) defines the requirements for automatic final measures. The VDE Application Rule transposes this in Germany. The corresponding concepts are to be implemented preventively by transmission and distribution system operators and network users so that the effectiveness of the automatic final measures is ensured should these be implemented.